Researchers are now studying the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of leukemia at many medical centers, university hospitals, and other institutions. Genetics As noted in Do we know what causes childhood leukemia? This progress has already led to vastly improved and very sensitive tests for detecting leukemia cells in blood or bone marrow samples.
Research is completed through various methods, which are similar to those of case studies, but since the researcher is immersed within the group for an extended period of time more detailed information is usually collected during the research. A form of ethnography that studies activities of group members to see how they make sense of their surroundings Existence or Frequency This is a key question in the coding process.
For example, "damn" could be counted once, even though it appears 50 times, or it could be counted all 50 times. The latter measurement may be interested in how many times it occurs and what that indicates, whereas the former may simply looking for existence, period.
Experiment Experimental Research A researcher working within this methodology creates an environment in which to observe and interpret the results of a research question.
In an attempt to create a causal model i. Factor Analysis A statistical test that explores relationships among data.
The test explores which variables in a data set are most related to each other. In a carefully constructed survey, for example, factor analysis can yield information on patterns of responses, not simply data on a single response.
Larger tendencies may then be interpreted, indicating behavior trends rather than simply responses to specific questions. Generalizability The extent to which research findings and conclusions from a study conducted on a sample population can be applied to the population at large.
Grounded theory Practice of developing other theories that emerge from observing a group. Theories are grounded in the group's observable experiences, but researchers add their own insight into why those experiences exist.
Independent Variable A variable that is part of the situation that exist from which originates the stimulus given to a dependent variable. Includes treatment, state of variable, such as age, size, weight, etc.
Inductive A form of reasoning in which a generalized conclusion is formulated from particular instances Inductive analysis A form of analysis based on inductive reasoning; a researcher using inductive analysis starts with answers, but forms questions throughout the research process. Internal Consistency The extent to which all questions or items assess the same characteristic, skill, or quality.
Internal Validity 1 The rigor with which the study was conducted e. In studies that do not explore causal relationships, only the first of these definitions should be considered when assessing internal validity. Interrater Reliability The extent to which two or more individuals agree.
It addresses the consistency of the implementation of a rating system. A variable in which both order of data points and distance between data points can be determined, e. Irrelevant Information One must decide what to do with the information in the text that is not coded. One's options include either deleting or skipping over unwanted material, or viewing all information as relevant and important and using it to reexamine, reassess and perhaps even alter the one's coding scheme.
Kinesics Kinesic analysis examines what is communicated through body movement Level of Analysis Chosen by determining which word, set of words, or phrases will constitute a concept. According to Carley, concepts is generally sufficient when coding for a specific topic, but this number of course varies on a case by case basis.
Level of Generalization A researcher must decide whether concepts are to be coded exactly as they appear, or if they can be recorded in some altered or collapsed form. Using Horton as an example again, she could code profanity individually and code "damn" and "dammit" as two separate concepts.
Or, by generalizing their meaning, i.
For example, consider a hypothetical piece of text about skiing, written by an expert. The expert might refer several times to "??? One must decide whether to code "???
NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data. Statistical treatment can mean a few different things: In Data Analysis: Applying any statistical method — like regression or calculating a mean — to data. In Factor Analysis: Any combination of factor levels is called a treatment. Statistical analysis is a component of data analytics.. In the context of business intelligence (), statistical analysis involves collecting and scrutinizing every data sample in a set of items from which samples can be drawn.A sample, in statistics, is a representative selection drawn from a total population.
A matched pairs T-test can be used to determine if the scores of the same participants in a study differ under different conditions. For instance, this sort of t-test could be used to determine if people write better essays after taking a writing class than they did before taking the writing class.Charles S.
Peirce randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures design to evaluate their ability to discriminate weights.
Peirce's experiment inspired other researchers in psychology and education, which developed a research tradition of randomized experiments in laboratories and specialized textbooks in the s. Statistical treatment of data in research paper example Methods of statistics may be used predicatively in performance art, how close to reality were your measurements?
Subjective and Objective Bayesian Statistics: Principles, the modern field of statistics emerged in the . Statistical treatment can mean a few different things: In Data Analysis: Applying any statistical method — like regression or calculating a mean — to data.
In Factor Analysis: Any combination of factor levels is called a treatment. Substance Abuse Treatment research papers discuss the many avenues of substance abuse treatment.
Stroke is a disease that can affect anyone and can impair simple activities such as walking, talking, writing, and performing functions necessary for daily living. INTRODUCTION Background.
This article is written in the form of an original-research paper for the journal Sportscience. A few of the requirements for form and content are unique to Sportscience, but most are common to all good scientific journals.
Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. For example , the organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc.
(qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to.