One conservative faction would like to view the communist system as responsible for fascism. This speculation claims that the destruction of social class distinctions by the Bolsheviks prepared the way for racial murders of the Nazis. The extermination of the Jews is presented as a distorted copy of a previous model, rather than as a unique occurrence.
Introduction to Microsociological Approaches 1. Macro and Micro The sociological theories of Marx, Durkheim, Weber, and Parsons and the functional school are primarily large scale, macrosociological, and structural. These theories were developed in the latter half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries in Europe with Parsons adapting these theories and developing a similar model in the United States.
These theories were developed by European social theorists who were attempting to understand the new social world of a modern, industrial, urban society. These classical theories established sociology as an academic discipline, their definition of the social world established the scope Three sociological perspectives essay sociological study, and their methodologies determined how sociology would be studied and applied.
In North America a different set of questions occupied late nineteenth and early twentieth century sociologists, and a different sociological tradition became established. North American writers were more concerned with understanding the bases of social action and interaction among individual members of society.
Since it is these interactions that define the the social world, underly social structures, and create and maintain societies, sociologists need to understand these. These microsociological or interaction perspectives are of several main types.
Symbolic interaction examines meaning, action, and interaction at the micro level, and was developed by United States sociologists George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer, with Erving Goffman, a Canadian, being one of its primary practitioners Wallace and Wolf, Ch.
A related approach is that of ethnomethodology, originally developed by Harold Garfinkel. This is referred to as interpretive sociology or interpretive analysis, and is related to the phenomenological approach of the Austrian-American Alfred Schutz Wallace and Wolf, Ch. Contemporary sociologists have adapted and developed these ideas and have created a great variety of mixed interaction approaches.
Some of the ideas that led to the these microsociological theories are examined in the following sections.
A short summary of some of the different aspects of these two levels of sociology is provided first. The subject of macrosociological theory is the large-scale structures and features of society — social class, division of labour, power, forms of authority, rationalization, and broad historical developments.
In contrast, the subject of microsociology is the individual interacting with other individuals, often in small group settings. Where the settings are within larger scale structures, the micro focus is still on how individuals interpret the situation and interact with other individuals in these settings.
The classical approaches often began with what could be considered micro concepts, but use these to develop macrosociological theories.
For example, Marx begins with a micro concept, the commodity, but derives this from a study of capitalism as a whole, and uses it to explain the structure of this system. The theories of Weber and Parsons are concerned with social action, and Parsons calls his theory an action theory, so it might be thought that these two writers span macro and micro.
While the action approaches of Weber and Parsons could have led to an interaction perspective, neither author really develops such an approach. Weber is concerned with meaning, but does not devote much attention to defining this, and the bulk of his writings is devoted to groups, organizations, history, and structures of power.
Parsons begins with the individual act in a situation, and considers interaction, but moves quickly from this to systems and needs. Interaction underlies these, but is not the primary focus of Parsons.
The macro theories concentrate on average action and the regularities that are common to large numbers of social actors. The micro focus is on individual action, its meaning, how interaction occurs, and the uniqueness of individuals and the self b.
The macro approach to social action tends to be determined by large scale structural features of society or the cultural and value systems. In these theories, there is often little room for, or analysis of, the manner in which people are creative in their interaction with others. That is, action is determined by social norms, cultural values, laws, religion, social class, consciousness, and ideology.
These effect of these macro forces on social action is determinate and can be examined empirically in sociological studies e. In contrast, the interaction approach considers humans to be creative, with unique selves and individual forms of interaction.
For these sociologists, social action and interaction can only be studied by carefully examining the ways in which symbols, structures, and organizations are understood by individuals and how different individuals come to interpret interaction differently.Perspectives on Christian Worship is a compilation of five essays, each written by a different author, presenting five divergent approaches to Christian, evangelical worship.
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Sociology - The Three Major Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology. Essay about Marx, Durkheim, Weber and Sociology - The theoretical works of Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber still influence sociological theory. We have moved!
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The Major Theories of Sociology Essay - Symbolic Interactionism In the field of sociology, sociologists use many different theories to base their ideas and observations on; however, the three major theories that are used are symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, and conflict theory.
- This essay will critically discuss the key sociological perspectives of Functionalism, Marxism and Feminism and how they relate to the way relationships are structured within society.
In addition to this it will aim to discover which of the three perspectives have the most relevance in modern life.