In archaic timesancient GreeksEtruscans and Celts established settlements in the souththe centre and the north of Italy respectively, while various Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula and insular Italy. In 27 BC, Augustus established the Roman Empire and inaugurated the Pax Romanaa period of stability and relative peace in which Italy flourished as the leading political and economic centre of the known world. The death of the last of the good emperorsMarcus Aureliusand the crisis of the third century marked the beginning of the decline of Rome. The Empire went through major changes in the following centuries, including the establishment of a tetrarchy in under Diocletian and the end of the persecutions of Christians with the Edict of Milan of under Constantine.
Conquest of Wales by Edward I Through internal struggles and dynastic marriage alliances, the Welsh became more united until Owain Gwynedd — became the first Welsh ruler to use the title princeps Wallensium prince of the Welsh. In response, the usually fractious Welsh, who still retained control of the north and west of Wales, started to unite around leaders such as Owain Gwynedd's grandson Llywelyn the Great —who is known to have described himself as "prince of all North Wales".
However, a succession of disputes, including the imprisonment of Llywelyn's wife Eleanordaughter of Simon de Montfortculminated in the first invasion by Edward I. After a military defeat, the Treaty of Aberconwy in reasserted Llywelyn's fealty to the King of England. Inafter another rebellion, Edward I finally made a permanent conquest.
With Llywelyn dead, the King took over his lands and dispossessed various other allied princes of northern and western Wales,  and across that area Edward established the counties of AngleseyCaernarfonshireFlintshireMerionethshireCardiganshire and Carmarthenshire.
The Statute of Rhuddlan formally established Edward's rule over Wales two years later although Welsh law continued to be used. Remaining princes became marcher lords.
The tradition of bestowing the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir of the British Monarch continues to the present day. To help maintain his dominance, Edward constructed a series of great stone castles.
Initially, the Crown had only indirect control over much of Wales because the Marcher lords ruling over independent lordships in most of the country were independent from direct Crown control.
The exception was the lands of the Principality of Wales in the north and west of the country, which was held personally by the King or the heir to the Crown but was not incorporated into the Kingdom of England.
However, between the 13th and 16th centuries the Crown gradually acquired most of the Marcher Lordships, usually through inheritance, until almost all of Wales came under Crown control. Nevertheless, the whole of Wales — that is, the Principality, Marcher Lordships held by the Crown and Marcher Lordships held by others — remained outside of the legal and constitutional structures of the Kingdom of England.
The rebellion was ultimately to founder, however.
The power of the Marcher lords was ended inwhen the political and administrative union of England and Wales was completed. The Laws in Wales Act annexed Wales to England and extended English law to Wales, abolished the marcher lordships and partitioned their lands into the counties of BreconDenbighMonmouthMontgomeryand Radnor while adding parts to GloucesterHerefordand Salop.
Monmouthshire was wholly subsumed into the court structure of England and so omitted from the subsequent Laws in Wales Act ofwhich led to ambiguity about its status as part of England or Wales.
The Act also extended the Law of England to both England and Wales and made English the only permissible language for official purposes.
This had the effect of creating an English-speaking ruling class amongst the Welsh, at a time when Welsh was the language of the great majority. Wales was also now represented in Parliament at Westminster.
English Conquest of Ireland[ edit ] Main article: History of Ireland By the 12th century, Ireland was divided.
Power was exercised by the heads of a few regional dynasties vying with each other for supremacy over the whole island.The Roman Republic The Romans established a form of government — a republic — that was copied by countries for centuries In fact, the government of the United States is based partly on Rome's model.
A lthough he was born simply Gaius Oc-tavius, this Roman became the first true emperor of Rome. He has been known throughout history as Emperor Augustus or. Although much of this history had been lost, the Roman historian Livy (59 BCE – 17 CE) was still able to write a remarkable History of Rome - volumes - recounting the years of the monarchy through the fall of the Republic.
Much of his history, however, especially the early years, was based purely on myth and oral accounts. cause he engineered the end of the ancient Roman Republic and began the imperial legacy.
pretended to restore the Roman Republic and give power back to the all-important Senate. In and the Formation of the Roman Empire HISTORICAL BACKGROUND.
Articles on the End of the Roman Republic Look at the Gracchi brothers, the conflict between Sulla and Marius, external forces like Mithradates of Pontus and pirates, the social war, and other factors that strained the Roman republic and led to the formation of the first period of the Roman .
The Roman Republic The Romans established a form of government — a republic — that was copied by countries for centuries In fact, the government of the United States is based partly on Rome's model.