The simplest and easiest to understand of all the arguments ever offered by believers is the Argument from Design.
Background[ edit ] Need for demonstration of the existence of God[ edit ] Aquinas did not think the finite human mind could know what God is directly, therefore God's existence is not self-evident to us.
For example, the general question of whether "God" has a body or is composed of matter is answered in question three, immediately following the Five Ways.
For example, while he would allow that in all creatures there is found the trace of the Trinity yet a trace shows that someone has passed by but not who it is. Source[ edit ] A summary version of the Five Ways is given in the Summa theologiciae  The Summa uses the form of scholastic disputation i.
A subsequent, more detailed, treatment of the Five Ways can be found in the Summa contra gentiles. When Aquinas argues that a causal chain cannot be infinitely long, he does not have in mind a chain where each element is a prior event that causes the next event; in other words, he is not arguing for a first event in a sequence.
Rather, his argument is that a chain of concurrent or simultaneous effects must be rooted ultimately in a cause capable of generating these effects, and hence for a cause that is first in the hierarchical sense, not the temporal sense.
An essential series of causes is one in which the first, and every intermediate member of the series, must continue to exist in order for the causal series to continue as such. The Five Ways[ edit ] Summary[ edit ] In the world, we can see that at least some things are changing.
Whatever is changing is being changed by something else. If that by which it is changing is itself changed, then it too is being changed by something else. But this chain cannot be infinitely longso there must be something that causes change without itself changing. This everyone understands to be God.
The Argument of the First Cause[ edit ] Summary[ edit ] In the world, we can see that things are caused.
But it is not possible for something to be the cause of itself because this would entail that it exists prior to itself, which is a contradiction.
If that by which it is caused is itself caused, then it too must have a cause. But this cannot be an infinitely long chain, so, there must be a cause which is not itself caused by anything further.
For example, plant growth depends on sunlight, which depends on gravity, which depends on mass. The Argument from Contingency[ edit ] Summary[ edit ] In the world we see things that are possible to be and possible not to be.
In other words, perishable things.
But if everything were contingent and thus capable of going out of existence, then, given infinite time, this possibility would be realized and nothing would exist now. But things clearly do exist now. Therefore, there must be something that is imperishable: But if everything were like this, then, at some time nothing would exist.
Some interpreters read Aquinas to mean that assuming an infinite past, all possibilities would be realized and everything would go out of existence.
Since this is clearly not the case, then there must be at least one thing that does not have the possibility of going out of existence.
Moreover, it does not seem to be in keeping with Aquinas' principle that, among natural things, the destruction of one thing is always the generation of another.
To hold the alternative, namely that an infinite series of contingent causes would be able to explain eternal generation and corruption would posit a circular argument: Why is there eternal generation and corruption?
Because there is an eternal series of causes which are being generated and corrupted. And why is there an infinite series of causes which are being generated and corrupted? Because there is eternal generation and corruption.The teleological argument moves to the conclusion that there must exist a designer.
The inference from design to designer is why the teleological argument is also known as the design argument. Theories of Explanation. Within the philosophy of science there have been competing ideas about what an explanation is.
Historically, explanation has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause. Your point of view — unlike your opponents’ — fits in well with an increasing shift in my own thought away from traditional “narrative” history (featuring heroic figures and their ideals, achievements, and failures) and toward economics as the driving force of political and social change.
The argument from design or the teleological argument points to the existence of order and direction in nature to a kind of purpose. The argument essentially proves the existence of God. Jul 24, · Argumentative essay topics for high school implies discussion on debatable ground.
The author evaluates statements, proofs and support, hidden arguments, assumptions, internal contradictions and comes to idea that one point of view becomes more preferable than others, while the rest of people may disagree with it.
The Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the Fundamental Principle of Morality (after Kant and Nelson) I have not done wrong. The "Negative Confession" or Protestation of Ani, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, The Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images, translated by Dr.