This article, in French, originally appeared in the print version of Le Monde. It is part 4 of a special 6-part summer series.
Nomadic pastoralism developed in the Pontic-Caspian steppe beginning in the Chalcolithic. Beginning in the 8th century BC, Ancient Greek traders brought their civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria.
Ancient Greek explorers, most notably Pytheaseven went as far as modern day Kaliningradon the Baltic Sea.
Romans settled on the western part of the Caspian Seawhere their empire stretched towards the east. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdoma Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies,  was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars.
From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia  and assimilated Russian bering sea marine border issues native Finno-Ugric peoplesincluding the Meryathe Muromiansand the Meshchera.
Kievan Rus' Main articles: Rus' KhaganateKievan Rus'and List of early East Slavic states Kievan Rus' in the 11th century The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangiansthe traders, warriors and settlers from the Baltic Sea region.
Primarily they were Vikings of Scandinavian origin, who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.
Inhis successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazarsfounding Kievan Rus'. Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.
In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegscaused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.
Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.
Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of —40  that resulted in the destruction of Kiev  and the death of about half the population of Rus'.
Led by Prince Alexander NevskyNovgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva inas well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice inbreaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'.
While still under the domain of the Mongol - Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia.
Times remained difficult, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids. Agriculture suffered from the beginning of the Little Ice Age. As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between and Moscow gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod.
He was also the first to take the title "Grand Duke of all the Russias". Moscow Kremlin complex; the administrative centre of the Russian State since the 15th century Tsardom of Russia Main article: The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws Sudebnik ofestablished the first Russian feudal representative body Zemsky Sobor and introduced local self-management into the rural regions.
Thus, by the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnicmultidenominational and transcontinental state. However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.
The slave raids of Crimeanshowever, did not cease until the late 17th century though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Lineconstantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions.
Inthe Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky.
The Romanov Dynasty acceded to the throne in by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis. Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks.The International Maritime Organization (IMO) recently approved a joint U.S.-Russian proposal for ship-routing measures in the Bering Strait, a shared, international waterway with increased marine activity that divides the two maritime states.
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The stern Border Guard officer – a member of the notorious Russian Federal Security Bureau (FSB) – boarded our bus in the remote Russian Bering Sea village of Lavrentiya demanding our “documents.”. 2 aanalyticalnalytical ddigestigest rrussianussian russian analytical digest 20/07 Analysis US-Russian Bering Sea Marine Border Dispute: Conﬂ ict over Strategic.
Unlike other parts of the world, the U.S. and Russia work well together in the Bering Sea and the Arctic.
The pair is enforcing fishing regulations and . The purchase treaty did mention a boundary across the Bering Sea; however, with the introduction of the mile limit by the Law of the Sea, the border issue became pressing, since neither side .