Receive free lesson plans, printables, and worksheets by email:
This newer method attempts to eliminate the extraneous "uh" sounds which were unavoidable in the older method. Children also learn strategies to figure out words they don't know. Phonics is considered an "analytical" approach where students analyze the letters, letter combinations and syllables in a word; in an effort to "decode" 1 the speech-sounds represented by the letters and 2 the meaning of the text.
The advantage of phonics is that, especially for students who come to schools with large English vocabularies, it enables students to decode or "sound-out" a word they have in their speaking vocabulary. Phonics proponents led by Rudolf Flesch in his book Why Johnny Can't Read attacked the whole word approach because 1 it did not get students into reading children's stories that did not have carefully controlled vocabularies and 2 it theoretically required the students to memorize every word as a whole.
Phonics advocates focus their efforts on the primary grades and emphasize the importance of students having phonemic awarenessthat is an understanding of the alphabetic principle that the spelling of words relates to how they sound when spoken.
A problem with teaching the reading of English with this analytical approach is that English words do not have a one-to-one speech-sound to symbol relationship.
If they did have a one-to-one relationship, reading would be easier.
In general, with a few common exceptions, the consonants do have a one-to-one speech-sound to symbol relationship but the vowels do not. For instance the letter "a" represents one sound in the word "say", a second sound in "at", a third sound in "any", a fourth sound in "are", a fifth sound Phonics vs whole language "all", a sixth sound in "about", a seventh sound in "father", an eighth sound in "orange", and a ninth sound silence in "bread".
The speech-sounds are sometimes influenced by a the letters surrounding the target vowel, b by the sentence containing the word and c the stress, or lack thereof, given to the syllable containing the letter.
Almost any combination of three letters with a central "a" can reasonably be pronounced in a number of different ways. For instance the "a" in "pag" could be pronounced as in "page" long "a""pageant" short "a"creepage short "i" or decoupage short "o" as in "dot". It therefore follows that beginning students will have a difficult time picking the appropriate sound when sounding-out words which are not in their speaking vocabularies.
Fortunately, most readers quickly develop a subconscious word sense which helps them fluently pick the right sound based on the structure of the word and how that structure is related to other similar words they know. Some very common words do not fully follow common phonic patterns, so those words have to be memorized.
Some books refer to these words as " sight words ", but it is probably better to refer to them as "memory words" because some books refer to sight words as those words which are so common they do not have to be analyzed or "sounded-out".
It does not seem like a good idea to have "sight-words" mean two different things when "memory-words" is available. The many homonyms in English such as to, too, and two create difficulties for students, even at the university level in regard to spelling. For those who learn to speak by learning the whole sound of a word, phonics is not an ideal form of reading instruction, because these learners do not naturally break words into separate sounds.
Some phonics programs use low-interest reading material and too many boring worksheets. Those "drawbacks", of course, are not unique to a phonics program. Whole language Whole language is a currently controversial approach to teaching reading that is based on constructivist learning theory and ethnographic studies of students in classrooms.
With whole language, teachers are expected to provide a literacy rich environment for their students and to combine speakinglisteningreadingand writing. Whole language teachers emphasize the meaning of texts over the sounds of letters, and phonics instruction becomes just one component of the whole language classroom.
Whole language is considered a " top down " approach where the reader constructs a personal meaning for a text based on using their prior knowledge to interpret the meaning of what they are reading.
Some whole language programs place too little emphasis on word analysis. When that is left out, young readers may guess or skip over words they don't know and some children may not learn how to read.
Some scholars have estimated that a whole-word memorization approach puts severe limitations on the number of words that children can learn to read. These students tend to enter school with large vocabularies and reading readiness skills and sometimes they already can read.
Students from "low literacy" households are not exposed much to reading in their homes and tend to have smaller vocabularies. They may speak non-standard dialects of English such as African American Vernacular English and can be unmotivated students, especially if they see teachers as enemies trying to change how they speak and act, in other words their language and culture.
It can be argued that a standard phonics approach might be unsuccessful for these students. Whole language approaches encourage teachers to find reading material that reflects these students' language and culture.
Using culturally relevant material within classrooms may assist to engage these students in their reading.
In addition, knowing students and how they learn will assist as topics of interest can be incorporated into their reading material for added motivation. Publishing basal reading textbooks is a multimillion dollar industry that responds to the demands of purchasers.
Two populous states, California and Texas, do statewide adoptions of textbooks, and whatever they want in their textbooks, publishers tend to supply.
Currently publishers are including systematic phonics instruction see synthetic phonicsmore classic and popular children's literature, and whole language activities. This compromise generally goes under the rubric of a "balanced approach" to teaching reading.
Advocates of balanced reading instruction should supplement a school's adopted reading program with materials that reflect the experiential background and interests of their students. Various approaches to reading presume that students learn differently.
The phonics emphasis in reading draws heavily from behaviorist learning theory that is associated with the work of the Harvard psychologist B.
Skinner while the whole language emphasis draws from cognitivist learning theory and the work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Behaviorist learning theory is based on studies of animal behaviors where animals such as pigeons learned to do tasks when they received rewards and extinguished stopped behaviors that were not rewarded or were punished.Whole Language vs.
Phonics. Whole language reading instruction (also known as "look-say" or "sight" reading) is the most widely used method of teaching reading in the U.S. and many other countries. Currently publishers are including systematic phonics instruction (see synthetic phonics), more classic and popular children's literature, and whole language activities.
This compromise generally goes under the rubric of a "balanced approach" to teaching reading. The phonics vs whole language approach to reading, writing and spelling is a topic which has been debated for years.
The phonics emphasis in reading draws heavily from behaviorist learning theory that is associated with the work of the Harvard psychologist B.F.
Skinner while the whole language emphasis draws from constructivist learning theory and the work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Phonics Is Superior to Whole Language The evidence to support the notion that phonics is superior is stated simply as such; every good reader has excellent ‘phoneme awareness,’ or ‘phonemic awareness,’ which is the ability to ‘decode’ words.
Whole Language Instruction. Whole Language learning programs focus on less rigid tactics for literacy. Generally, less time is focused on repetition learning.
In fact, it focuses on the flow and theme of the text, emphasizing meaning and relating to young students. Students do .