Liu Lili, Chinese Central Party School At the beginning of the Chinese government relaxed its family planning laws to allow all married couples to have a second child. But, one year on, how effective has this new policy really been? This initial progress is owing to hard work by both the Chinese government and society over the past year. Their new draft argues for implementing a comprehensive two-child policy and advocates for couples to have two children.
The progression of China's population pyramidInternational Futures.
The fertility rate in China continued its fall from 2. Some scholars claim that this decline is similar to that observed in other places that had no one-child restrictions, such as Thailand as well as Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, a claim designed to support the argument that China's fertility might have fallen to such levels anyway without draconian fertility restrictions    .
According to a study in the Journal of Economic Perspectives"the one-child policy accelerated the already-occurring drop in fertility for a few years, but in the longer term, economic development played a more fundamental role in leading to and maintaining China's low fertility level.
However, a more recent study found that China's fertility decline to very low levels by the mid s was far more impressive given its lower level of socio-economic development at that time;  even after taking rapid economic development into account, China's fertility restrictions likely averted over million births between andwith the portion caused by one-child restrictions possibly totaling million.
Most of this deficit was due to sex-selective abortion as well as the 1. Missing women of China The sex ratio of a newborn infant between male and female births in mainland China reached It had risen from Thus, a large majority of couples appear to accept the outcome of the first pregnancy, whether it is a boy or a girl.
If the first child is a girl, and they are able to have a second child, then a couple may take extraordinary steps to assure that the second child is a boy. If a couple already has two or more boys, the sex ratio of higher parity births swings decidedly in a feminine direction. This demographic evidence indicates that while families highly value having male offspring, a secondary norm of having a girl or having some balance in the sexes of children often comes into play.
Zeng reported a study based on the census in which they found sex ratios of just 65 or 70 boys per girls for births in families that already had two or more boys. Even the government acknowledges the problem and has expressed concern about the tens of millions of young men who won't be able to find brides and may turn to kidnapping women, sex trafficking, other forms of crime or social unrest.
According to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciencesthere will be 24 million more men than women of marriageable age by In fact, "out adoption" was not uncommon in China even before birth planning.
In the s, adoptions of daughters accounted for slightly above half of the so-called "missing girls," as out-adopted daughters often went unreported in censuses and survey and adoptive parents were not penalized for violating birth quotas  However, ina central decree attempted to close off this loophole by raising penalties and levying those penalties on any household that had an "unauthorized" child, including those that had adopted children.
The peak wave of abandonment occurred in the s, with a smaller wave after In an interview with National Public Radio on 30 OctoberAdam Pertman,  president and CEO of the National Center on Adoption and Permanency, indicated that "the infant girls of yesteryear have not been available, if you will, for five, seven years.
And the consequence is that, today, rather than those young girls who used to be available — primarily girls — today, it's older children, children with special needs, children in sibling groups.
It's very, very different. According to a China Daily report, the number of twins born per year was estimated to have doubled. For thousands of years, girls have held a lower status in Chinese households. However, the one-child policy's limit on the number of children has prompted parents of women to start investing money in their well-being.
As a result of being an only child, women have increased opportunity to receive an education, and support to get better jobs. One of the side effects of the one-child policy is to have liberated women from heavy duties in terms of taking care of many children and the family in the past; instead women had a lot of spare time for themselves to pursue their career or hobbies.
The other major "side effect" of the one child policy is that the traditional concepts of gender roles between men and women have weakened. Being one and the only "chance" the parents have, women are expected to compete with peer men for better educational resources or career opportunities.
Especially in cities where one-child policy was much more regulated and enforced, expectations on women to succeed in life are no less than on men. At family planning offices, women receive free contraception and pre-natal classes that contributed to the policy's success in two respects.
First, the average Chinese household expends fewer resources, both in terms of time and money, on children, which gives many Chinese people more money with which to invest. Second, since Chinese adults can no longer rely on children to care for them in their old age, there is an impetus to save money for the future.
If not for personal savings, pensions, or state welfare fail, most senior citizens would be left entirely dependent upon their very small family or neighbours for assistance. If, for any reason, the single child is unable to care for their older adult relatives, the oldest generations would face a lack of resources and necessities.
In response to such an issue, all provinces have decided[ when? Byall provinces in the nation except Henan had adopted this new policy;   Henan followed in Being excluded from the family register means they do not possess a Hukouwhich is "an identifying document, similar in some ways to the American social security card.
Shidu bereavementa social phenomenon denoting the loss of an only child Some parents may over-indulge their only child.Curriculum. Elementary Curriculum; Secondary Curriculum; A list of Policy and Resource Documents for the Ontario Curriculum: Elementary and Secondary are available. This page contains useful and current tools that apply to all publicly funded elementary and secondary English-language schools in .
Child sexual abuse is not solely restricted to physical contact; such abuse could include noncontact abuse, such as exposure, voyeurism, and child pornography (page 1)..
Compared to those with no history of sexual abuse, young males who were sexually abused were five times more likely to cause teen pregnancy, three times more likely to have multiple sexual partners and two times more likely to.
UPDATED: Rural Child Welfare. Provides resources to increase the capacity of child welfare professionals working in rural communities. VISIT THE WEB SECTION.
The one-child policy was a birth planning policy of ashio-midori.comct from the family planning policies of most other countries (which focus on fulfilling parent's childbearing desires and contraceptive options), it set a limit on the number of children parents could have, the world's most extreme example of population ashio-midori.com was introduced in (after a decade long two-child policy.
Dec 07, · Babies born dependent on drugs are being released to parents unable to care for them, and Reuters found examples of children who died as a result. ASCD's Whole Child approach is an effort to transition from a focus on narrowly defined academic achievement to one that promotes the long-term development and success of all children.
We help educators, families, community members, and policymakers move from a vision about educating the whole child.