Saint Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels. Most surviving art from the Medieval period was religious in focus, often funded by the Churchpowerful ecclesiastical individuals such as bishopscommunal groups such as abbeysor wealthy secular patrons. Many had specific liturgical functions—processional crosses and altarpiecesfor example. One of the central questions about Medieval art concerns its lack of realism.
The emergence of modern Europe, — Economy and society The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age.
By the population in most areas of Europe was increasing after two centuries of decline or stagnation.
The great geographic discoveries then in process were integrating Europe into a world economic system. New commodities, many of them imported from recently discovered lands, enriched material life. Not only trade but also the production of goods increased as a result of new ways of organizing production.
Merchants, entrepreneursand bankers accumulated and manipulated capital in unprecedented volume. Most historians locate in the 16th century the beginning, or at least the maturing, of Western capitalism.
Capital assumed a major role not only in economic organization but also in political life and international relations. Culturally, new values—many of them associated with the Renaissance and Reformation—diffused through Europe and changed the ways in which people acted and the perspectives by which they viewed themselves and the world.
This world of early capitalism, however, can hardly be regarded as stable or uniformly prosperous.
Financial crashes were common; the Spanish crown, the heaviest borrower in Europe, suffered repeated bankruptcies in—77,and The poor and destitute in society became, if not more numerous, at least more visible.
Even as capitalism advanced in the West, the once-free peasants of central and eastern Europe slipped into serfdom. Politically, the new centralized states insisted on new levels of cultural conformity on the part of their subjects.
Several states expelled Jews, and almost all of them refused to tolerate religious dissenters. Culturally, in spite of the revival of ancient learning and the reform of the churches, a hysterical fear of witches grasped large segments of the population, including the learned.
Understandably, historians have had difficulty defining the exact place of this complex century in the course of European development.Colonial American beverages Hot, non-alcoholic Coffee, tea and chocolate were popular non-alcoholic hot beverages during American Colonial times.
These imports were expensive, but not beyond the reach of the average person. Folks too poor to afford the real thing brewed hot beverages from herbs, flowers, bark, roots, and woody stems.
Science and machines - Scientific and technological development since Modern railroads, electric lights, airplanes and automobiles: these are just some of the notable 19th and 20th century inventions highlighted in this exhibition.
During this time of rapid progress, the potential of science and technology to improve every aspect of. The top problems with evolution explained using scientific evidence against evolution. In the creation evolution controversy, it is clear not only that the theory of evolution is wrong, the theory of evolution is false, but that the theory of evolution is a lie.
The year in science and technology included many significant events.
Events. Royal Institution of Great Britain granted a royal charter. Astronomy. The central star of the Ring Yeast is discovered, as a new way to make beer ferment (beer made before was lambic). Frequently in my early teaching career, I taught a computer literacy course.
In this course I taught my student that a computer is a machine for the input, storage, processing, and output of information.
The art of Europe, or Western art, Medieval period, to re-emerge in the Renaissance, suffer a period of what some early art historians viewed as "decay" during the Baroque period, Before the s, the Christian church was a major influence upon European art, the commissions of the Church, architectural, painterly and sculptural.