Applications[ edit ] Filtration is used to separate particles and fluid in a suspension, where the fluid can be a liquida gas or a supercritical fluid. Depending on the application, either one or both of the components may be isolated. Filtration, as a physical operation is very important in chemistry for the separation of materials of different chemical composition.
Operation[ edit ] Ceramic membrane for industrial cross-flow filtration In crossflow filtration, the feed is passed across the filter membrane tangentially at positive pressure relative to the permeate side. A proportion of the material which is smaller than the membrane pore size passes through the membrane as permeate or filtrate ; everything else is retained on the feed side of the membrane as retentate.
With crossflow filtration the tangential motion of the bulk of the fluid across the membrane causes trapped particles on the filter surface to be rubbed off. This means that a crossflow filter can operate continuously at relatively high solids loads without blinding.
Benefits over conventional filtration[ edit ] A higher overall liquid removal rate is achieved by the prevention of filter cake formation Process feed remains in the form of a mobile slurry, suitable for further processing Solids content of the product slurry may be varied over a wide range It is possible to fractionate particles by size  Industrial applications[ edit ] Filtration unit for industrial cross-flow filtration Cross flow membrane filtration technology has been used widely in industry around the globe.
Filtration membranes can be polymeric or ceramic, depending upon the application.
The principles of cross-flow filtration are used in reverse osmosisnanofiltrationultrafiltration and microfiltration. When purifying water, it can be very cost effective in comparison to the traditional evaporation methods.
In protein purificationthe term tangential flow filtration TFF is used to describe cross-flow filtration with membranes. The process can be used at different stages during purification, depending on the type of membrane selected. These pipe sizes are directly related to the proportion of liquid flows through the unit.
A dedicated pump is used to recycle the feed several times around the unit before the solids-rich retentate is transferred to the next part of the process. Techniques to improve performance[ edit ] Backwashing[ edit ] In backwashing, the transmembrane pressure is periodically inverted by the use of a secondary pump, so that permeate flows back into the feed, lifting the fouling layer from the surface of the membrane.
Backwashing is not applicable to spirally wound membranes and is not a general practice in most applications. See CIP  Alternating tangential flow ATF [ edit ] A diaphragm pump is used to produce an alternating tangential flow, helping to dislodge retained particles and prevent membrane fouling.
Repligen is the largest producer of ATF systems. Clean-in-place CIP [ edit ] Clean-in-place systems are typically used to remove fouling from membranes after extensive use. The CIP process may use detergents, reactive agents such as sodium hypochlorite and acids and alkalis such as citric acid and sodium hydroxide.
Sodium hypochlorite bleach must be removed from the feed in some membrane plants. Bleach oxidizes thin-film membranes. Oxidation will degrade the membranes to a point where they will no longer perform at rated rejection levels and have to be replaced.
Bleach can be added to a NaOH sodium hydroxide CIP during an initial system start-up before spirally-wound membranes are loaded into the plant to help disinfect the system.
Bleach is also used to CIP perforated stainless steel Graver membranes, as their tolerance for sodium hypochlorite is much higher than a spirally-wound membrane. Caustics and acids are most often used as primary CIP chemicals.
Caustic removes organic fouling and acid removes minerals. Enzyme solutions are also used in some systems for helping remove organic fouling material from the membrane plant.
The pH and temperature are important to a CIP program. If pH and temperature are too high the membrane will degrade and flux performance will suffer.
If pH and temperature are too low, the system simply will not be cleaned properly.
|Featured SEC HPLC/UHPLC Columns||The modified Kelvin equation serves as the basis for many methods applied for mesopore analysis, including the Barett—Joyner—Halenda method BJH , which is widely used. In order to account for the preadsorbed multilayer film, the Kelvin equation is combined with a standard isotherm or a so-called t-curve, which usually refers to adsorption measurements on a nonporous solid.|
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|Water Filtration||This operation can be used to separate particles according to their dimensions.|
|Our Solutions||This will all be done considering several important filtration and water parameters.|
Every application has different CIP requirements. Each membrane manufacturer has their own guidelines for CIP procedures for their product.
Concentration[ edit ] The volume of the fluid is reduced by allowing permeate flow to occur. Solvent, solutes, and particles smaller than the membrane pore size pass through the membrane, while particles larger than the pore size are retained, and thereby concentrated. In bioprocessing applications, concentration may be followed by diafiltration.
Diafiltration[ edit ] In order to effectively remove permeate components from the slurry, fresh solvent may be added to the feed to replace the permeate volume, at the same rate as the permeate flow rate, such that the volume in the system remains constant.
This is analogous to the washing of filter cake to remove soluble components. Process flow disruption PFD [ edit ] A technically simpler approach than backwashing is to set the transmembrane pressure to zero by temporarily closing off the permeate outlet, which increases the attrition of the fouling layer without the need for a second pump.
PFD is not as effective as backwashing in removing fouling, but can be advantageous. Flow rate calculation[ edit ] The flux or flow rate in cross-flow filtration systems is given by the equation :Agricultural waste obtained from Elaeis guineensis mid ribs can provide a veritable source of materials which can be used as precursor materials for the production of pharmaceutical grade activated charcoal.
The pore size and surface morphology of activated charcoal defines the types of molecules that could be adsorbed unto it, as surface morphology plays a significant role in determining the. WFC9 – a) A plain weave (b) A Double layered weave Figure 1.
Comparative Methods for the Pore Size Distribution of Woven and Metal Filter Media. EMD Millipore Steripak-GP SPGPM20RJ Polyethersulfone Filter Unit, Hydrophilic, µm Pore Size, 99mm Diameter, cm2 Filtration Area (Pack of 3). A Quick Look at (SEC) Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) is a chromatographic method which separates analytes solely based on their size, where molecules are separated on the basis of their exclusion from pores in the column packing material.
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Step 2: Select the best membrane and housing material for your application. Step 3: Select the correct .
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