Developmental exposure to BPA changes behavioral and reproductive phenotypes, and these effects can last for generations. We exposed embryos to BPA, producing two lineages:
Int J Med Sci ; 15 How to cite this article: It also possesses oestrogenic, antiandrogenic, inflammatory and oxidative properties. Since bone responds to changes in sex hormones, inflammatory and oxidative status, BPA exposure could influence bone health in humans. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the relationship between BPA and bone health derived from cellular, animal and human studies.
Exposure to BPA 0. Bisphenol AF 10 nM enhanced transforming growth factor beta signalling but bisphenol S 10 nM inhibited Wnt signalling involved in osteoblast differentiation in vitro.
The effect of Bisphenol-a substitutes on the heart rate of Daphnia magna Wall For over a decade, people have been aware of the negative effects of Bisphenol-A. Bisphenol A (BPA: 2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane) similar structure to polychlorinated biphenyls, PBFRs is an industrially important monomer used in many have become a . The effects of long-term exposure to BPA and its analogues, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS) (10 nM) on human osteosarcoma cells were compared. After three months of exposure, BPAF and BPS significantly enriched 5 and 11 skeletal biological processes according to the genome-wide gene expression assay, but BPA exposure was not.
In animals, BPA and its derivatives demonstrated distinct effects in different models. In oestrogen deficiency models, BPA improved bone mineral density and microstructures in aromatase knockout mice at very high dose, 0.
Two cross-sectional studies have been performed to examine the relationship between BPA level and bone mineral density in humans but they yielded negligible association.
As a conclusion, BPA and its derivatives could influence bone health and a possible gender effect was observed in animal studies. However, its effects in humans await verification from more comprehensive longitudinal studies in the future.
Humans are exposed to BPA directly through oral and topical routes, and indirectly via environmental pollution and food chain [ 3 - 6 ]. The biological effects of BPA are exerted via its bindings to various receptors in the body, including the bone.
However, its affinity is approximately to fold weaker compared to E2 [ 78 ].
Exposure to BPA has been associated with reduced testosterone level, suggesting the possibly antiandrogenic activity of BPA [ 9 ]. Furthermore, BPA also possesses the antiandrogenic activity indirectly via upregulation of aromatase enzyme to convert androgens to oestrogens [ 1011 ].
The complex interactions between BPA and sex hormones could bear significant biological implications to the bone, a target organ of sex hormones.
On the other hand, BPA has been shown to produce reactive oxygen species ROS via mitochondrial dysfunction, downregulation of antioxidant enzymes, and alteration of cellular signalling [ 1314 ]. Cross-sectional studies also revealed that BPA exposure was linked with inflammation and oxidative stress in men and postmenopausal women [ 1617 ].
Since both inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with decreased bone health [ 1819 ], exposure to BPA might have degenerative effects on the bone. Since BPA influences several biological processes associated with skeletal health, it may have an impact on skeletal development and pathogenesis of osteoporosis.The effects of bisphenol A on neuron number, a very basic building block of function, will be explored in two cortical areas of rats, the visual cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex (PL and IL) where sex differences have been found.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced chemical used primarily for the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. More than 6 billion pounds of BPA are .
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a variety of consumer products, including dental sealants, food/beverage containers and linings, medical equipment, and thermal receipts. 1 The use of BPA-containing products in daily life makes exposure ubiquitous in industrialized and industrializing countries.
2, –, 5 The predominant source of BPA exposure for most people is diet, although exposure also might. Bisphenol A is used primarily to make plastics. Bisphenol A based plastics have been in commercial use since It is a key ingredient in polymers that are used to make adhesives, containers, electronic coatings, boat hulls.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant with endocrine-disrupting properties and is suspected to affect human reproduction. The objective of this review was to summarize the potential effects of male exposure to BPA on markers of testicular function and couple reproductive outcomes.
Abstract. The endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.
The use of BPA-containing products in daily life makes exposure ubiquitous, and the potential human health risks .