The Nature of Justice Since friendship is an important feature of the good life and virtuous habits can be acquired through moral education and legislation, Aristotle regarded life within a moral community as a vital component of human morality. Even in the Ethics, he had noted that social order is presumed by the general concept of justice. Ethics V 2 Properly considered, justice is concerned with the equitability or fairness in interpersonal relations. Thus, Aristotle offered an account of distributive justice that made allowances for the social rectification of individual wrongs.
References and Further Reading 1. Biography and History Aristotle's life was primarily that of a scholar. However, like the other ancient philosophers, it was not the stereotypical ivory tower existence.
Clearly, Aristotle had significant firsthand experience with politics, though scholars disagree about how much influence, if any, this experience had on Aristotle's thought. There is certainly no evidence that Alexander's subsequent career was much influenced by Aristotle's teaching, which is uniformly critical of war and conquest as goals for human beings and which praises the intellectual, contemplative lifestyle.
It is Aristotles political ideal that although Aristotle praises the politically active life, he spent most of his own life in Athens, where he was not a citizen and would not have been allowed to participate directly in politics although of course anyone who wrote as extensively and well about politics as Aristotle did was likely to be politically influential.
As Aristotles political ideal scholar, Aristotle had a wide range of interests. He wrote about meteorology, biology, physics, poetry, logic, rhetoric, and politics and ethics, among other subjects.
His writings on many of these interests remained definitive for almost two millennia. They remained, and remain, so valuable in part because of the comprehensiveness of his efforts. For example, in order to understand political phenomena, he had his students collect information on the political organization and history of different cities.
The question of how these writings should be unified into a consistent whole if that is even possible is an open one and beyond the scope of this article.
This article will not attempt to organize all of Aristotle's work into a coherent whole, but will draw on different texts as they are necessary to complete one version of Aristotle's view of politics.
The Texts The most important text for understanding Aristotle's political philosophy, not surprisingly, is the Politics. However, it is also important to read Nicomachean Ethics in order to fully understand Aristotle's political project.
This is because Aristotle believed that ethics and politics were closely linked, and that in fact the ethical and virtuous life is only available to someone who participates in politics, while moral education is the main purpose of the political community.
As he says in Nicomachean Ethics at b30, "The end [or goal] of politics is the best of ends; and the main concern of politics is to engender a certain character in the citizens and to make them good and disposed to perform noble actions. We are likely to regard politics and politicians as aiming at ignoble, selfish ends, such as wealth and power, rather than the "best end", and many people regard the idea that politics is or should be primarily concerned with creating a particular moral character in citizens as a dangerous intrusion on individual freedom, in large part because we do not agree about what the "best end" is.
In fact, what people in Western societies generally ask from politics and the government is that they keep each of us safe from other people through the provision of police and military forces so that each of us can choose and pursue our own ends, whatever they may be.
This has been the case in Western political philosophy at least since John Locke. Development of individual character is left up to the individual, with help from family, religion, and other non-governmental institutions.
More will be said about this later, but the reader should keep in mind that this is an important way in which our political and ethical beliefs are not Aristotle's. The reader is also cautioned against immediately concluding from this that Ar istotle was wrong and we are right.
This may be so, but it is important to understand why, and the contrast between Aristotle's beliefs and ours can help to bring the strengths and weaknesses of our own beliefs into greater clarity.
|Quotes By Topic||In this system, heavy bodies in steady fall indeed travel faster than light ones whether friction is ignored, or not and they do fall more slowly in a denser medium.|
|An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.||Contact Author Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher who contributed the foundation of both symbolic logic and scientific thinking to Western philosophy.|
|Science, Metaphysics, and Logic||References and Further Reading 1.|
|From the SparkNotes Blog||Citations of this work, as with the rest of the works of Aristotleare often made by referring to the Bekker section numbers.|
The reference above to "Nicomachean Ethics at b30" makes use of what is called Bekker pagination. This refers to the location of beginning of the cited text in the edition of Aristotle's works produced by Immanuel Bekker in Berlin in in this case, it begins on pagecolumn b, line Scholars make use of this system for all of Aristotle's works except the Constitution of Athens which was not rediscovered until after and fragmentary works in order to be able to refer to the same point in Aristotle's work regardless of which edition, translation, or language they happen to be working with.
This entry will make use of the Bekker pagination system, and will also follow tradition and refer to Nicomachean Ethics as simply Ethics.
There is also a Eudemian Ethics which is almost certainly by Aristotle and which shares three of the ten books of the Nicomachean Ethics and a work on ethics titled Magna Moralia which has been attributed to him but which most scholars now believe is not his work.
Regardless, most scholars believe that the Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle's fullest and most mature expression of his ethical theory. The translation is that of Martin Ostwald; see the bibliography for full information.Unit 1 AP Government (chapters ) STUDY.
PLAY. true. T or F- most people holding potitical power in the United States today are middle-class, middle-aged, white Protestant males. in our political system, Aristotle's ideal of direct democracy has been most closely approximated by the. Aristotle (b. – d. BCE), was a Greek philosopher, logician, and scientist.
Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in a number of philosophical fields, including political theory.
Regarding the constitution that is ideal or “according to prayer,” Aristotle criticizes the views of his predecessors in Politics and then offers a rather sketchy blueprint of his own in Politics VII and VIII.
“Politics II: Political Critique, Plitical Theorizing, Political Innovation,” in Thornton Lockwood and Thanassis Samaras. Aristotle’s Philosophy of Equality, Peace, & Democracy Matt Qvortrup argues that Aristotle’s political philosophy is surprisingly modern. The son of a doctor, Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Macedonia in the year BC, and was educated at .
Aristotle's Ideal State, Hierarchy and Happiness Matthew Raphael Johnson good in the most authoritative of all- this is the political science of which the good is justice, in other words, the common interest” (Politics, III, 12).
Citizenship is the same as aristocracy in Aristotle's ideal state. There are several. Politics is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
The end of the Nicomachean Ethics declared that the inquiry into ethics necessarily follows into politics, and the two works are frequently considered to be parts of a larger treatise, or perhaps connected lectures, dealing with the "philosophy of human affairs".
The title of the Politics literally means "the things concerning .