During the period from 50 BC to AD 75 - covering the collapse of the Republic, the subsequent civil wars, and the dawn of the Principate-the traditional meaning and language of peace came under extreme pressure as pax was co-opted to serve different strands of political discourse. This volume argues for its fundamental centrality in understanding the changing dynamics of the state and the creation of a new political system in the Roman Empire, moving from the debates over the content of the concept in the dying Republic to discussion of its deployment in the legitimization of the Augustan regime, first through the creation of an authorized version controlled by the princeps and then the ultimate crystallization of the pax augusta as the first wholly imperial concept of peace. Examining the nuances in the various meanings, applications, and contexts of Roman discourse on peace allows us valuable insight into the ways in which the dynamics of power were understood and how these were contingent on the political structures of the day. However it also demonstrates that although the idea of peace came to dominate imperial Rome's self-representation, such discourse was nevertheless only part of a wider discussion on the way in which the Empire conceptualized itself.
The Late Republic —31 bc The aftermath of the victories The fall of Carthage and Corinth did not even mark a temporary end to warfare. War and military glory were an essential part of the Roman aristocratic ethos and, hence, of Roman political life.
Apart from major wars still to come, small wars on the frontiers of Roman power—never precisely fixed—continued to provide an essential motive in Roman history: Thus the limits of Roman power were gradually extended and the territories within them pacified, while men of noble stock rivaled the virtus of their ancestors and new men staked their own competing claims, winning glory essential to political advancement and sharing the booty with their officers and soldiers.
Nonetheless, the coincidence of the capture of Corinth and Carthage was even in antiquity regarded as a turning point in Roman history: Changes in provincial administration The first immediate effect was on the administration of the empire.
The military basis of provincial administration remained: He was always prepared—and in some provinces expected—to fight and win. But it had been found that those unlimited powers were often abused and that Senate control could not easily be asserted at increasing distances from Rome.
For political and perhaps for moral reasons, excessive abuse without hope of a remedy could not be permitted. Hence, when the decision to annex Carthage and Macedonia had been made in principle bca permanent court the quaestio repetundarum was established at Rome to hear complaints against former commanders and, where necessary, to assure repayment of illegal exactions.
Another result of the new conquests was a major administrative departure. When Africa and Macedonia became provinciae to be regularly assigned to commanders, it was decided to break with precedent by not increasing the number of senior magistrates praetors.
This was the beginning of the dissociation between urban magistracy and foreign command that was to become a cardinal principle of the system of Sulla and of the developed Roman Empire.
Social and economic ills It is not clear to what extent the temporary end of the age of major wars helped to produce the crisis of the Roman Republic. The general view of thinking Romans was that the relaxation of external pressures led to internal disintegration.
This has happened in other states, and the view is not to be lightly dismissed. Moreover, the end of large-scale booty led to economic recession in Rome, thus intensifying poverty and discontent. But the underlying crisis had been building up over a long period.
The minimum property qualification for service was lowered and the minimum age 17 ignored; resistance became frequent, especially to the distant and unending guerrilla war in Spain. When the Senate—on the motion of his cousin Scipio Aemilianuswho later finished the war—renounced the peace, Tiberius felt aggrieved; he joined a group of senior senators hostile to Aemilianus and with ideas on reform.
Tiberius had no intention of touching private property; his idea was to enforce the legal but widely ignored limit of iugera acres on occupation of public land and to use the land thus retrieved for settling landless citizens, who would both regain a secure living and be liable for service.
The slave war in Sicilywhich had lasted several years and had threatened to spread to Italy, had underlined both the danger of using large numbers of slaves on the land and the need for a major increase in military citizen manpower.
On the advice of his eminent backers, he took his bill—which made various concessions to those asked to obey the law and hand back excess public land—straight to the Assembly of the Plebswhere it found wide support.
This procedure was not revolutionary; bills directly concerning the people appear to have been frequently passed in this way. But his opponents persuaded another aristocratic tribune, Marcus Octaviusto veto the bill. Tiberius tried the constitutional riposte: But the Senate was unwilling to help, and Octavius was unwilling to negotiate over his veto—an action apparently unprecedented, though not strictly speaking unconstitutional.
Tiberius had to improvise a way out of the impasse. He then passed his bill in a less conciliatory form and had himself, his father-in-law, and his brother appointed commissioners with powers to determine boundaries of public land, confiscate excess acreage, and divide it in inalienable allotments among landless citizens.
As it happened, envoys from Pergamum had arrived to inform the Senate that Attalus III had died and made the Roman people his heirs provided the cities of his kingdom were left free. Tiberius, at whose house the envoys were lodging, anticipated Senate debate and had the inheritance accepted by the people and the money used to finance his agrarian schemes.
Fearing prosecution once his term in office was over, he now began to canvass for a second tribunate—another unprecedented act, bound to reinforce fears of tyranny. The elections took place in an atmosphere of violence, with nearly all his tribunician colleagues now opposed to him.
When the consul Publius Scaevolaon strict legal grounds, refused to act against him, Publius Scipio Nasicathe chief pontiff, led a number of senators and their clients to the Assembly, and Tiberius was killed in a resulting scuffle.
Widespread and bloody repression followed in Thus political murder and political martyrdom were introduced into Roman politics.
The land commission, however, was allowed to continue because it could not easily be stopped. Some evidence of its activities survives. Byperhaps running out of available land held by citizens, it began to apply the Gracchan law to public land held by Italian individuals or communities.
This had probably not been envisaged by Tiberius, just as he did not include noncitizens among the beneficiaries of distributions.
Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, chairman of the commission and consul intried to solve the problem by offering the Italians the citizenship or alternatively the right to appeal against Roman executive acts to the Roman people in return for bringing their holdings of public land under the Gracchan law.Late Republic Education.
Between the end of the previous page to the later phase of the Republic (c. BC and up), education in Rome does not have any particular changes worthy of including in a succinct analysis. Republican Rome Timeline Timeline of the Period of the Late Republic of Rome.
Share Flipboard Email Print History & Culture. Ancient History & Culture Rome Basics Major Figures & Events Ancient Languages Greece & Sparta Egypt Asia Literature Mythology & Religion American History. The period that commenced in the late third century brought increasing intensity to political and military interchange between Rome and the Hellenistic world.
And with it came an ever more urgent drive on Rome’s part to come to grips with the meaning and relevance of Greek culture.
Ancient Rome, the state centred on the city of Rome. This article discusses the period from the founding of the city and the regal period, which began in bc, through the events leading to the founding of the republic in bc, the establishment of the empire in 27 bc, and the final eclipse of the Empire of the West in the 5th century ad.
Rome Late Republic Apollo Sosianus: Abstract: In this thesis I have investigated the reasons for which Romans appropriated foreign material culture, in which conditions and what happened with it after was brought in Rome during the Late Republic (second and first century B.C.).
Chapter 4, “The Haruspices and the Rise of Prophecy,” charts the growing prominence of the Etruscan haruspices in Republican Rome and analyzes the cultural processing that established diviners using Etruscan doctrine at the core of Roman religious life while at the same time constructing such practices as distinctly foreign.